In the world of health there are several professions whose role is to provide health services, such as doctors, dentists, nurses, pharmacists, nutritionists, and so forth. The public, especially ordinary people, still think that the health profession has the same role and function when providing health services. Actually, each profession has its own role and function in health care and has set limits on the role of health services. This role limitation is because every health profession has different knowledge, expertise, and skills. The role and function of each healthcare professional greatly influences the quality of health services, so how is the role and function of nurses in improving health services?
Nursing is recognized as a profession. A profession is defined as a job that requires extensive knowledge or a calling that requires specific knowledge, skills, and preparation (Kozier, 2016). A profession is generally distinguished from other jobs by 6 aspects namely, prolonged training requirements specifically to obtain a body of knowledge related to the role that must be performed, individual orientation towards services, both for the community or to an organization, ongoing research, code of ethics, autonomy, and professional organizations (Kozier, 2016).
Nurses as a profession have fulfilled the criteria of a profession that is special education. Special education is an important aspect for professional status. As the times have progressed, education for the profession has shifted towards college and university programs. Nursing educators believe that the undergraduate nursing curriculum must include liberal arts education in addition to biology, social science, and nursing discipline.
The second criterion is the body of knowledge. Nursing as a profession builds a body of knowledge and well-defined expertise. There are a number of conceptual frameworks in nursing based on nursing knowledge that provide direction for nursing practice, education, and ongoing research. In addition, nursing theories that continue to develop that have been tested through research can become a body of knowledge (Kozier, 2016). The third criterion is service orientation. The orientation to service is a differentiator of nursing with other jobs. Nursing in practice provides services to individuals, families, groups and communities in a comprehensive manner, both physical, psychological, spiritual, social, and providing education to clients. Nurses must also have altruistic value when providing nursing care.
The fourth criterion is ongoing research. Improving research in nursing is a contribution to nursing practice. In the 1940s, nursing research was at an early stage of development. In the 1950s, increasing federal funding and professional support helped establish a nursing research center. Most initial research is directed at the study of nursing education at this time. In the 1960s, research was often conducted related to the nature of knowledge that underlies nursing practice. Since the 1970s, nursing research has focused on issues of nursing practice (Kozier, 2016).
The fifth criterion is the professional code of ethics. Gifted Healthcare per diem nurse jobs requires the integrity of its members, ie a member who is expected to do what is considered right. The code of ethics is a written document that describes the principles of behavior used in making various decisions (Rue & Byars in Rustina, 2015). The nursing code of ethics regulates the responsibilities of nurses to clients, nurses with peers and other health professions, as well as nurses with the nursing profession. The code of ethics can change when people’s needs and values change (Kozier, 2016).
The sixth criterion is autonomy. A profession is said to be autonomous if it can regulate itself and set standards for its members. The nursing profession functions independently in forming policies and controlling its activities without intervention from any party. For nursing practitioners, autonomy is a freedom to make wise decisions, set their own goals, be independent, and cannot be supervised by other professions (Kozier, 2016). The last criterion is professional organization.